Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Favorite Teacher Essay Example

Favorite Teacher Essay Example Favorite Teacher Essay Favorite Teacher Essay Introduction The instructor was inquiring some simple inquiries in arithmetic. The category was larning the simple operation of division. When the instructor asked how many bananas would each boy get if three bananas were divided every bit among three male childs. person had an reply. One each. Thousand bananas divided every bit among thousand male childs? The reply was still the same. One. The category was come oning therefore. inquiry being asked by the instructor and replies being provided by the pupil. But there was a male child who had a inquiry. If none of the bananas was divided among no male childs. how much would each boy get? : The whole category explosion into laughter at what the pupils thought was a fast one or a cockamamie inquiry. But the instructor seemed to hold been impressed. He took it upon himself to explicate to the male childs that what the pupil asked was non a cockamamie inquiry. But the instructor seemed to hold been impressed. He took it upon himself to explicate to the male childs that what the pupil had asked was non a cockamamie inquiry but instead a profound one. He was oppugning the instructor about the construct of eternity. A construct that had baffled mathematicians for centuries. until the Indian scientist Bhaskara had provided some visible radiation. He had proved that nothing divided by zero nor one. but eternity. The pupil was Srinivasa Ramanujan. the mastermind who introduced the construct of nothing to the universe. LIFE OF SRINIVASA RAMANUJAN Srinivasa Iyengar Ramanujan. popularly known as S. Ramanujan was a great mathematician from India. He was born December 22. 1887 in Erode. Madras Presidency at the abode of his maternal grandparents. His male parent. K. Srinivasa Iyengar. worked as a clerk in a saree store and hailed from the territory of Thanjavur. His female parent. Komalatammal. was a homemaker and besides sang at a local temple. They lived in Sarangapani Street in a traditional place in the town of Kumbakonam. When he was about five old ages old. Ramanujan entered the primary school in Kumbakonam although he would go to several different primary schools before come ining the Town High School in Kumbakonam in January 1898. At the Town High School. Ramanujan was to make good in his full school topic and showed himself an able all unit of ammunition bookman. In 1900 he began to work on his ain on mathematics summing geometric and arithmetic series. It was in the Town High School that Ramanujan came across a mathemat ics book by G S Carr called Synopsis of simple consequences in pure mathematics. This book. with its really concise manner. allowed Ramanujan to learn himself mathematics. but the manner of the book was to hold a instead unfortunate consequence on the manner Ramanujan was subsequently to compose down mathematics since it provided the lone theoretical account that he had of written mathematical statements. The book contained theorems. expression and short cogent evidence. It besides contained an index to documents on pure mathematics which had been published in the European Journals of Learned Societies during the first half of the nineteenth century. The book. published in 1856. was of class good out of day of the month by the clip Ramanujan used it. By 1904 Ramanujan had begun to set about deep research. He investigated the series ? ( 1/n ) and calculated Euler’s changeless to 15 denary topographic points. He began to analyze the Bernoulli Numberss. although this was wholly his ain independent find. Ramanujan. on the strength of his good school work. was given a scholarship to the Government College in Kumbakonam which he entered in 1904. However the undermentioned twelvemonth his scholarship was non renewed because Ramanujan devoted more and more of his clip to mathematics and neglected his other topics. Without money he was shortly in troubles and. without stating his parents. he ran off to the town of Vizagapatnam about 650 kilometers north of Madras. He continued his mathematical work. nevertheless. and at this clip he worked on hypergeometric series and investigated dealingss between integrals and series. He was to detect subsequently that he had been analyzing elliptic maps. In 1906 Ramanujan went to Madras where he entered Pachaiyappa’s College. His purpose was to go through the First Arts scrutiny which would let him to be admitted to the University of Madras. He attended talks at Pachaiyappa’s College but became badly after three months study. He took the First Arts scrutiny after holding left the class. He passed in mathematics but failed all his other topics and hence failed the scrutiny. This meant that he could non come in the University of Madras. In the undermentioned old ages he worked on mathematics developing his ain thoughts without any aid and without any existent thought of the so current research subjects other than that provided by Carr’s book. Continuing his mathematical work Ramanujan studied continued fractions and divergent series in 1908. At this phase he became earnestly sick once more and underwent an operation in April 1909 after which he took him some considerable clip to retrieve. He married on 14 July 1909 when his female parent arranged for him to get married a 10 twelvemonth old miss S Janaki Ammal. Ramanujan did non populate with his married woman. nevertheless. until she was 12 old ages old. Ramanujan continued to develop his mathematical thoughts and began to present jobs and work out jobs in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society. He devoloped dealingss between elliptic modular equations in 1910. After publication of a superb research paper on Bernoulli Numberss in 1911 in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society he gained acknowledgment for his work. Despite his deficiency of a university instruction. he was going good known in the Madras country as a mathematical mastermind. In 1911 Ramanujan approached the laminitis of the Indian Mathematical Society for advice on a occupation. After this he was appointed to his first occupation. a impermanent station in the Accountant General’s Office in Madras. It was so suggested that he approach Ramachandra Rao who was a Collector at Nellore. Ramachandra Rao was a laminitis member of the Indian Mathematical Society who had helped get down the mathematics library. Ramachandra Rao told him to return to Madras and he tried. unsuccessfully. to set up a scholarship for Ramanujan. In 1912 Ramanujan applied for the station of clerk in the histories subdivision of the Madras Port Trust. Despite the fact that he had no university instruction. Ramanujan was clearly good known to the university mathematicians in Madras for. with his missive of application. Ramanujan included a mention from E W Middlemast who was the Professor of Mathematics at The Presidency College in Madras. Indeed the University of Madras did give Ramanujan a scholarship in May 1913 for two old ages and. in 1914. Hardy brought Ramanujan to Trinity College. Cambridge. to get down an extraordinary coaction. Puting this up was non an easy affair. Ramanujan was an Orthodox Brahmin and so was a rigorous vegetarian. His faith should hold prevented him from going but this trouble was overcome. partially by the work of E H Neville who was a co-worker of Hardy’s at Trinity College and who met with Ramanujan while talking in India. Ramanujan sailed from India on 17 March 1914. It was a unagitated ocean trip except for three yearss on which Ramanujan was airsick. He arrived in London on 14 April 1914 and was met by Neville. After four yearss in London they went to Cambridge and Ramanujan spent a twosome of hebdomads in Neville’s place before traveling into suites in Trinity College on 30th April. Right from the beginning. nevertheless. he had jobs with his diet. The eruption of World War I made obtaining particular points of nutrient harder and it was non long earlier Ramanujan had wellness jobs. Right from the start Ramanujan’s coaction with Hardy led to of import consequences. Hardy was. nevertheless. diffident how to near the job of Ramanujan’s deficiency of formal instruction. The war shortly took Littlewood off on war responsibility but Hardy remained in Cambridge to work with Ramanujan. Even in his first winter in England. Ramanujan was sick and he wrote in March 1915 that he had been badly due to the winter conditions and had non been able to print anything for five months. What he did print was the work he did in England. the determination holding been made that the consequences he had obtained while in India. many of which he had communicated to Hardy in his letters. would non be published until the war had ended. On 16 March 1916 Ramanujan graduated from Cambridge with a Bachelor of Science by Research ( the grade was called a Ph. D. from 1920 ) . He had been allowed to inscribe in June 1914 despite non holding the proper makings. Ramanujan’s thesis was on Highly composite Numberss and consisted of seven of his documents published in England. Ramanujan fell earnestly badly in 1917 and his physicians feared that he would decease. He did better a small by September but spent most of his clip in assorted nursing places. On 18 February 1918 Ramanujan was elected a chap of the Cambridge Philosophical Society and so three yearss subsequently. the greatest honor that he would have. his name appeared on the list for election as a chap of the Royal Society of London. He had been proposed by an impressive list of mathematicians. viz. Hardy. MacMahon. Grace. Larmor. Bromwich. Hobson. Baker. Littlewood. Nicholson. Young. Whittaker. Forsyth and Whitehead. His election as a chap of the Royal Society was confirmed on 2 May 1918. and so on 10 October 1918 he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge. the family to run for six old ages. The awards which were bestowed on Ramanujan seemed to assist his wellness better a small and he renewed his attempts at bring forthing mathematics. By the terminal of November 1918 Ramanujan’s wellness had greatly improved. Ramanujan sailed to India on 27 February 1919 geting on 13 March. However his wellness was really hapless and. despite medical intervention. he died there the undermentioned twelvemonth. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICS Ramanujan worked out the Riemann series. the elliptic integrals. hyper geometric series and functional equations of the zeta map. Ramanujan’s ain work on partial amounts and merchandises of hyper geometric series have led to major development in the subject. Possibly his most celebrated work was on the figure P ( n ) of dividers of an whole number N into summands. He made extraordinary parts to mathematical analysis. figure theory. infinite series. and continued fractions. The figure theory is the abstract survey of the construction of figure systems and belongingss of positive whole numbers. It includes assorted theorems about premier Numberss ( a premier figure is an whole number greater than one that has non built-in factor ) . Number theory includes analytic figure theory. originated by Leonhard Euler ( 1707-89 ) ; Geometric theory – which uses such geometrical methods of analysis as Cartesian coordinates. vectors and matrices ; and probabilistic figure theory based on chance theory. What Ramanujan did will be to the full understood by a really few. (

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Business Writing vs. Academic Writing

Business Writing vs. Academic Writing Recent college graduates often struggle with the difference between academic and business writing. The University of Houston’s Academic Center recently published a good article that delineated key differences: Writing at work focuses on problem solving. Work-related writing targets multiple audiences with different perspectives. Writing at work may be read by unknown readers. Writing produced at work can be used indefinitely and can be used in legal proceedings. The format for work documents varies greatly from the format for academic documents. There is one other very significant difference not listed in this article: business writing needs to be clear and concise. Academic writing, by contrast, is more often focused on development of thought, and length is encouraged. Students are often rewarded with higher grades if a paper is longer, uses an impressive vocabulary, and/or complex sentence structure. Business writing is different: one should write to express, not impress. This does not at all mean business writing should be â€Å"dumbed down.† Writing clean, short documents is harder. As Blaise Pascal wisely stated, â€Å"I’m sorry this letter is so long. I did not have time to make it shorter.†

Friday, February 14, 2020

Interpreting Films and Analyzing Film Elements Essay

Interpreting Films and Analyzing Film Elements - Essay Example Indeed, when many people read lists of the 100 best movies they are often dumbfounded at the inclusion of many films they deem boring or plain bad. Similarly, many film critics will pan Hollywood blockbusters that go on to make millions of dollars. However, in film analysis the writer must go beyond these simple constructs and delve into the filmmaker’s thematic and stylistic intentions. This essay considers varying means by which academic film analysis can be achieved, with specific emphasis on thematic elements, visual elements, and editing, and also posits a personal perspective on the task of analyzing a film for its artistic qualities. One of the central areas of importance in film analysis concerns the examination of a film for its thematic elements. In these regards, films can be read similar to the means by which one would analyze a work of literature. While there are undeniable similarities between film and novels, writers (Boggs 2006) have argued that there is a distinct difference between examining theme in terms of a film and theme in terms of a novel; while the novel represents theme through an idea, for film the theme is understood as the central unifying concept of the entire text. Another feature that is notable when examining films are the varying stylistic devices that the filmmaker has at their disposal. They include, â€Å"1) plot, 2) emotional effect or mood, 3) character, and 4) style or texture† Boggs (2006, pg. 20). Indeed, it’s understood that while all these elements will exist within a film, the filmmaker will choose to emphasize one specific element over the others. It follows that in analyzing a film, one must determine which elements the filmmaker has chosen to analyze and for what purpose. While these theme elements seem like simple distinctions, the difference between a film that emphasizes plot over style or texture can be drastic; consider for instance the plot driven narrative in a film such as Raiders

Saturday, February 1, 2020

Confessions of St. Augustine Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Confessions of St. Augustine - Essay Example To know God, one needs to substantiate the inner awareness about God. The humans are the hearers of the Word of God; God communicates to us. The Word of God does not hard and fast refer to the divine, holy, and religious books; but for this it needs to establish a relationship between human beings and God. This relationship is nothing but that what we call "prayer." Praying to God exhibits our intention to hear and respond to God who is well coexisted within the souls of all of us. The prayer asks for surrender to the faith associated with the path full of suffering toward God. St. Augustine says "For Thou hast made us for Thyself and our hearts are restless till they rest in thee"with reference to these sufferingsor in other words the "spirituality" which is like an opportunity forinternal emotional growth. The terms "heart" in a broader sense refers to the soul or spirit with adding to its limited meaning of affections andsensations. This heart remains filled with restlessness in terms of desire for, with real consciousness and an urge toward, the unconditional, ultimate, and unrestrictedTruth. The life of Augustine, until he found the internal relationship with God, remained full of miseries, sins, lusts, wicked thoughts, etc. These words of Augustineindicate that the true essence oflife lies at"conversion" of human with God, the Creator. The image of God is coexisted withinallhumans ever since the onset;but due toour sins that image gets lost causing a barrier between us and God. Since there isthis barrier, in between, wecontinue to be restless and unh appy; when the reunion is establishedthrough the conversion we feel the ecstasy. The early life of Augustine was highly influenced by negative episodes that filled hislife with sinfulness. He viewed the human nature as wicked and proneto doingnothing good. If anything good comes, it comes from and through the power of God; Augustine praises the power of God. This is the reasonwhy he was led to the knowledge ofhuman nature and finally to achieve true happiness when he found God.The carving for something beyond is a natural tendency in all of us. We just cannot feel the peace of mind through the experiences of our life for which we pose questions to meaning. There always remains a thirst for satisfying light and some inner security with regard to the mysterious world around. This process starts from the birth till the moment we die. If we start surrendering ourselves to the mystery of life, at least then onward, we happen to be on the way of searching for something indefinable; and this search find us to arrive at the greater realities that surround us. The definit ion of spirituality could be given as to be the response to man's awareness of God whenhuman sees God as present and responds to Him. The method of this may vary among different religions. To converse the path of life made of "materialistic" success into the path of "spiritualistic" gains, we needthe awareness ofGod. Augustine was, maybe, the greatest man in this regard who found his triumph tosolve the queries and mysteries of life with mastery over the awareness of God.This is the result why his "confession" standsunique with no comparison in spite of

Friday, January 24, 2020

Importance of Art in Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre Essay -- Jane Eyre E

Importance of Art in Jane Eyre      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It is said that art is like a mirror to the soul, a way to see what the artist is feeling deep down in their heart.   It is as if their most personal thoughts and ideas are reflected in their work, either consciously or unconsciously.   Charlotte Brontà « utilizes this fact in her imagery and portrait of Jane Eyre.   Color and vivid description play a vital role explaining the process of emotional and physical maturation throughout the novel, from young Jane's recollection of the red room in Gateshead to her final reminiscence of Ferndean's gloomy facade. There is no better example of this process than Jane's own artistic abilities as they progress through life.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To best examine and explore the progress of Jane's emotional and temperamental development, it is important to construct a frame of reference, to have a base from which to work towards her final character. Her childhood home, Gateshead provides the groundwork of her emotional/character being, which at the beginning of the story is an isolated creature, devoid of loving and nurturing contact and shunned by humanity.   Two excerpts from her stay at Gateshead illustrate this fact, her reading of Bewick's "History of British Birds," and her punishment for striking Master John, the stay in the red room of Gateshead.   In the opening scene, Jane is found perusing a copy of Bewick's "History of British Birds," concentrating on the descriptions of the certain landscapes in which some of the birds live.   Her words paint a mental picture, one that represents her childhood,    "Of these death-white realms I formed an idea of my o... ...ituality from Helen Burns" is by no means meaningless, but it lacks depth.   To present another facet into the story, imagery reflects the conditions of Jane's life, conferring a tangible and viable outlet for her imagination, and a vehicle to her soul.   As her life develops, so does her ability, and the enjoyment she receives from this talent.   Truly, Jane Eyre would still be a great novel in the absence of the painting, but it would make it that much harder to touch the fabric of it's character's being.       Bibliography    Brontà «, Charlotte.   Jane Eyre.   Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996.    Endnotes    1) Charlotte Brontà «, Jane Eyre (Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1996), p. 21.    2) Brontà «, p. 131.    3) Brontà «, p.132.    4) Brontà «, p. 233.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Handel’s Opera

George Friderick Handel (1685-1759) writes all of his opera for over 35 years. Almost within his lifetime though his operas were considered to be almost obsolete with regards to format yet were of the finest kind. Due to format Handel's opera were the most neglected in all of his works until recently. As with most of the musical artist of his time, Handel's opera were modeled on both German and Italian style, with some modifications to suit his artistic taste and that of the English for which they were produced (Sadie, 1992, 614). In the span of his career, Handel composed more than forty operas. True to the nature of Baroque music, most of these operas show elements of the use of dance rhythms and elaborate melodic lines. Although born a German, Handel's opera was influenced by the conventions of the Italian opera seria, became its most important composer with Fench grandeur. Perhaps Handel's greatest contribution to the field of opera was his ability to convey emotions with sincerity and clarity through melody, so that he often used the opera seria convention of the da capo aria with dramatic and surprising effect (Sadie, 1992, 614). Handel's first opera was Almira composed in 1705. His fascination with Italians trends showed through his motto arias and obbligato accompaniment in concerto style. In this work however, Handel also showed the influence of his German training as seen by his tendency to repeat rhythmic patterns and relatively infrequent use of highly melismatic melodies. Handel had tried to replace the disorganized plots of much serious middle Baroque opera, with a new type which was strictly organized and formally predictable. Each scene was constructed mostly by a series of alternating recitatives and arias (usually da capo arias) after which the main characters would exit. His opera entitled Agrippina (1709) shown in Venice catapulted Handel to fame. This work shows an extensive borrowings from an earlier (lost) opera, Rodrigo, as well as his earlier cantatas. His success in opera occurred at a time when opera was forbidden in Rome (O'Grady, 1998). Handle's major Operas were Ottone (1723), Giulio Cesare (1724), Tamerlano (1724), Rinaldo (rev. 1731).

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Glorious Revolution Definition, History, and Significance

The Glorious Revolution was a bloodless coup that took place from 1688-1689, in which Catholic King James II of England was deposed and succeeded by his Protestant daughter Mary II and her Dutch husband, Prince William III of Orange. Motivated by both politics and religion, the revolution led to the adoption of the English Bill of Rights of 1689 and forever changed how England was governed. As the Parliament gained more control over the previously absolute authority of the royal monarchy, the seeds of modern political democracy were sown.   Key Takeaways: The Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution refers to the events of 1688–89 that led to Catholic King James II of England being deposed and replaced on the throne by his Protestant daughter Mary II and her husband William III, Prince of Orange.  The Glorious Revolution arose from James II’s attempts to expand freedom of worship for Catholics in opposition to the desires of the Protestant majority.The Glorious Revolution resulted in the English Bill of Rights that established England as a constitutional rather than absolute monarchy and served as the model for the U.S. Bill of Rights. King James IIs Reign   When James II took the throne of England in 1685, already tense relations between Protestants and Catholics were growing worse. A devout Catholic himself, James expanded freedom of worship for Catholics and favored Catholics in appointing military officers. James’ apparent religious favoritism, along with his close diplomatic ties with France, angered many of the English people and drove a dangerous political wedge between the monarchy and the British Parliament.   James II, portrait. King of England and Ireland from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. Culture Club / Getty Images In March 1687, James issued a controversial Royal Declaration of Indulgence suspending all laws punishing Protestants who rejected the Church of England. Later the same year, James II dissolved Parliament and tried to create a new Parliament that would agree never to oppose or question his rule according to the â€Å"divine right of kings† doctrine of absolutism.   James’ Protestant daughter, Mary II, remained the only rightful heir to the English throne until 1688, when James had a son, whom he vowed to raise as a Catholic. Fear soon arose that this change in the line of royal succession would result in a Catholic dynasty in England.  Ã‚   In Parliament, James’ stiffest opposition came from the Whigs, an influential political party whose members favored a constitutional monarchy over James’ absolute monarchy. Having failed in an attempt to pass a bill to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681, the Whigs were especially outraged by the potential long line of Catholic succession to the throne posed by his reign. James’ continued efforts to advance Catholic emancipation, his unpopular friendly relationship with France, his conflict with the Whigs in Parliament, and uncertainty over his successor to the throne fanned the flame of revolution.  Ã‚   Invasion of William III In 1677, James II’s Protestant daughter, Mary II, had married her first cousin William III, then the Prince of Orange, a sovereign principality now part of Southern France. William had long planned to invade England in an effort to oust James and prevent the Catholic emancipation. However, William decided not to invade without some level of support within England itself. In April 1688, seven of King James’ peers wrote to William pledging their allegiance if he invaded England. In their letter, â€Å"The Seven† stated that â€Å"much the greatest part of the [English] nobility and gentry† were unhappy with James II’s reign and would align with William and his invading forces.   Emboldened by the pledge of support from dissatisfied English noblemen and prominent Protestant clergy, William assembled an impressive naval armada and invaded England, landing in Torbay, Devon, in November 1688.   James II had anticipated the attack and had personally led his army from London to meet William’s invading armada. However, several of James’ soldiers and family members turned on him and pledged their allegiance to William. With both his support and his health failing, James retreated back to London on November 23, 1688.   In what appeared to be an attempt to retain the throne, James offered to agree to a freely elected Parliament and to grant a general amnesty to all who had rebelled against him. In reality, however, James was stalling for time, having already decided to flee England. James feared that his Protestant and Whig enemies would demand that he be executed and that William would refuse to pardon him. In early December 1688, James II officially disbanded his army. On December 18, James II safely fled England, effectively abdicating the throne. William III of Orange, greeted by cheering crowds, entered London the same day. English Bill of Rights In January 1689, a deeply divided English Convention Parliament met to transfer the crowns of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Radical Whigs argued that William should reign as an elected king, meaning his power would be derived from the people. Tories wanted to acclaim Mary as queen, with William as her regent. When William threatened to leave England if he was not made king, Parliament compromised on a joint monarchy, with William III as king, and James’ daughter Mary II, as queen.   William III and Mary II, King and Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, c1689. The Protestant William of Orange (1650-1702) and Mary Stuart (1662-1694) came to the throne following the Glorious Revolution. They ruled together until Marys death in 1694, after which William reigned alone. Artist Unknown.   Heritage Images / Getty Images Part of Parliament’s compromise agreement required that both William and Mary sign â€Å"An Act Declaring the Rights and Liberties of the Subject and Settling the Succession of the Crown.† Popularly known as the English Bill of Rights, the act specified constitutional and civil rights of the people and gave Parliament far more power over the monarchy. Proving more willing to accept restrictions from Parliament than any previous monarchs, both William III and Mary II signed the English Bill of Rights in February 1689. Among other constitutional principles, the English Bill of Rights acknowledged the right for regular meetings of Parliaments, free elections, and freedom of speech in Parliament. Speaking to the nexus of the Glorious Revolution, it also prohibited the monarchy from ever coming under Catholic control.   Today, many historians believe the English Bill of rights was the first step in England’s conversion from an absolute to a constitutional monarchy and served as the model for the United States Bill of Rights.  Ã‚   Significance of the Glorious Revolution English Catholics suffered both socially and politically from the Glorious Revolution. For over a century, Catholics were not allowed to vote, sit in Parliament, or serve as commissioned military officers. Until 2015, the sitting monarch of England was forbidden to be Catholic or to marry a Catholic. The English Bill of Rights of 1689 began the age of English parliamentary democracy. Not since its enactment has an English king or queen held absolute political power. The Glorious Revolution also played a significant role in the history of the United States. The Revolution freed the Protestant Puritans living in the American colonies of several of the harsh laws imposed on them by Catholic King James II. News of the Revolution spurred hopes of independence among the American colonists, leading to several protests and uprisings against English rule.   Perhaps most importantly, the Glorious Revolution served as the basis for constitutional law establishing and defining governmental power, as well as the granting and limitation of rights. These principles regarding the division of powers and functions among well-defined executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of government have been incorporated into the constitutions of England, the United States, and many other Western countries.   Sources and Further Reference Kenyon, John P. James II: King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Encyclopedia Britannica.Hutton, Ronald. The Restoration: a political and religious history of England and Wales 1658-1667. Oxford Scholarship (1985).  Royal Declaration of Indulgence. Revolvy.comThe Convention Parliament. British Civil Wars Project.MacCubbin, R. P.; Hamilton-Phillips, M., eds. (1988). The Age of William III and Mary II: Power, Politics adn Patronage, 1688-1702. William and Mary College. ISBN 978-0-9622081-0-2.The Convention and Bill of Rights. United Kingdom Parliament Website.